From Mobile Authoring of Open Educational Resources as Reusable Learning Objects, by Dr Kinshuk and Ryan Jesse, Athabasca University, Canada
Authoring content in a mobile context do not typically permit reuse across multiple contexts due to a lack of standardization. Standards based (IMS and SCORM) authoring implementations exist for non-mobile platforms, but there is no solution for capturing learning where and when it occurs.
This paper presented the tool that allows learners to create OER on a mobile device to be shared with learning community, and a framework for for assembly and creation of OER.
The tool presented in this article – MAAIMS – fits within the definition of open educational resource initiatives which includes open content, open software tools (e.g., learning management systems or authoring tools), and repositories of learning objects (Downes, 2007). Moreover, experts have suggested “that adopting a learning design methodology may provide a vehicle for enabling better design and reuse of Open Educational Resources (OER)” (Conole & Weller, 2008, p. 1); thus provisioning of tools to author learning designs, like the one presented in this article, can improve adoption of OER for content creation and subsequent reuse. The learning objects created within the subject tool can be considered an open, technology and format specific subset of an OER (Friesen, 2009).
At the macro level, this system allows learners to create OER to be shared under social constructivism. At the meso level, this article presents a framework for the development of an implementation for assembly and creation of OER. At the micro level, the system can author learning design which can be used for instructional design within an OER. Additionally, new information technology developments enable the creation of OER on a mobile device. Each aspect of this project is discussed next.
The following aspects of considerations are covered :
The interoperability of learning objects stored in various repositories has not been fully achieved due to non-standard independent development (McGreal, 2007; 2008), a need addressed by the implementation outlined in this article which demonstrates a repository for standardized learning objects and OER.
Mobile Device Sensors
Technology enhanced learning activities, such as those created with the mobile authoring tool in this project, capture spatially distributed physical sensory data, such as video, photos, audio recordings, GPS locations, and contextual attributes.
Previous mobile capture systems do “not provide for learning objects interoperability and reuse with other systems”. To facilitate the reusable learning objects …
IMS Global Learning Consortium Metadata, Content Packaging, and Learning Design specifications were selected as they are well defined and context agnostic.
Metadata, or data about data, is essential for addressing implementations of a learning object. A widely adopted standardization of metadata is needed.
The most cited de-facto format of a reusable learning object is that of an IMS Content Package: “IMS Content Packaging is the most widely used learning technology standard in the world” (IMS GLC, 2011b).
IMS Learning Design (LD) specification supports distributed learning environments (Berlanga & García, 2005). This specification seeks to meet the following goals, which closely support the aims of OER (Berlanga & García, 2005).
Reproducibility: The playback, runtime, or execution of IMS Learning Design is possible in different settings or contexts, or by different users.
Interoperability: IMS LD enables exchange and reuse of learning designs across different platforms and courses.
Compatibility: IMS LD is compatible with other specifications, particularly those published by IMS GLC.
Reusability: IMS LD provides an identity for each element of learning, decontextualizes it, and exchanges learning elements to permit their reuse in other contexts.
Authentic learning is an instructional theory focused on learning in context, or real life application of knowledge (Rule, 2006). Rule states that authentic tasks are used to integrate knowledge and skills into life or work settings, via complex activities. Instructional approaches that utilize authentic learning tasks include problem based learning, situated learning, constructive learning environments, and collaborative learning environments (Rule, 2006). This paper presents a tool to capture and create learning activities within these approaches.
Social constructionism is, in this instance, seen as an extension of authentic learning. Authentic learning examples can be captured where and when they occur, and shared under a social constructionism pedagogy in a LMS.
Communications in social constructionism learning are no longer one directional as in traditional instructionalism. Instead, members of the learning community contribute their authentic learning examples to the larger learning enterprise.
The adoption of OER necessitates authoring tools to create digital assets like learning objects. MAAIMS provides a method for open education resource creation in a mobile context, and sharing in a social constructivism pedagogy. The standardized output permits the content to be reused in other platforms and contexts as a reusable type of OER, a reusable learning object.
This paper is well worth a read!!